The International Classification of Diseases is published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and used worldwide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems, and automated decision support in health care. This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of these statistics. As in the case of the analogous (but limited to mental and behavioral disorders) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, currently in version 5), the ICD is a major project to statistically classify health disorders, and provide diagnostic assistance. The ICD is a core statistically-based classificatory diagnostic system for health care related issues of the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC).
The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth revision. The ICD-10, as it is therefore known, was developed in 1992 to track health statistics. ICD-11 is planned for 2017. As of 2007, development plans included using Web 2.0 principles to support detailed revision. Annual minor updates and triennial major updates are published by the WHO. The ICD is part of a "family" of guides that can be used to complement each other, including also the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which focuses on the domains of functioning (disability) associated with health conditions, from both medical and social perspectives.
History and usage in the United States
Mental and behavioral disorders
The ICD includes a section classifying mental and behavioral disorders (Chapter V). This has developed alongside the American Psychiatric Associations’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the two manuals seek to use the same codes. There are significant differences, however, such as the ICD including personality disorders in the same way as other mental disorders, while the DSM-IV-TR lists them on a separate 'axis'. The WHO is revising their classifications in these sections as part the development of the ICD-11 (scheduled for 2015), and an "International Advisory Group" has been established to guide this. An international survey of psychiatrists in 66 countries comparing use of the ICD-10 and DSM-IV found that the former was more often used for clinical diagnosis while the latter was more valued for research. The ICD is actually the official system for the