This blog consists of daily news items of interest to followers of QUIDDITY as a qualitatitive method of describing the world. This approach was described by Clive Barker in "The Great and Secret Show" and analyzed in the 149 posts of the QUIDDITY blog of this writer (see link to companion blog).
Researchers led by SDSU's Jean M. Twenge
find millennials are by far the least religious
By Beth Downing Chee, San
Diego State University, May 27, 2015
In what may be the
largest study ever conducted on changes in Americans’ religious involvement,
researchers led by San DiegoStateUniversity
psychology professor Jean M. Twenge found that millennials are
the least religious generation of the last six decades, and possibly in the
The researchers —
including Ramya Sastry from SDSU, Julie J. Exline
and Joshua B. Grubbs from Case Western Reserve University and W.
Keith Campbell from the University of Georgia — analyzed data from
11.2 million respondents from four nationally representative surveys of U.S.
adolescents ages 13 to 18 taken between 1966 and 2014.
studies, ours is able to show that millennials’ lower religious involvement is
due to cultural change, not to millennials being young and unsettled,” said
Twenge, who is also the author of “Generation Me.”
are less religious than Boomers and GenX’ers were at the same age," Twenge
continued. "We also looked at younger ages than the previous studies. More
of today’s adolescents are abandoning religion before they reach adulthood,
with an increasing number not raised with religion at all.”
Compared to the late 1970s, twice as many 12th graders and
college students never attend religious services, and 75 percent more 12th
graders say religion is “not important at all” in their lives. Compared to the early 1980s, twice as many high school
seniors and three times as many college students in the 2010s answered
"none" when asked their religion.
Compared to the 1990s,
20 percent fewer college students described themselves as above average in
spirituality, suggesting that religion has not been replaced with spirituality.
"These trends are
part of a larger cultural context, a context that is often missing in polls
about religion,” Twenge said. “One context is rising individualism in U.S. culture.
Individualism puts the self first, which doesn't always fit well with the commitment
to the institution and other people that religion often requires. As Americans
become more individualistic, it makes sense that fewer would commit to
Rivethead, Tales from
the Assembly Line is a collection of articles Ben Hamper wrote for Michael
Moore’s alternative newspaper in Flint,
Michigan, in the 1980s.It’s a startlingly funny and shocking
overview of blue collar America
at that time.Every American with an MBA
should be forced to read and ponder this book.Here are two readers’ reviews from Amazon.com
was forced to read this book...against my better wishes, my hellish American
History professor assigned this book to our class. As I read the title I
remembered thinking: "how in the world is an assembly line job interesting
enough to read about?" About the only thing I thought the book had going
for it was the forward by Michael Moore. It looked like I was going have to
spend another weekend plodding though a boring book when I could have been
spending it at the movies or out with my friends. It turned out to be one of
the best weekends of my life. The books was hilarious -- It was real, gritty,
sharp and wonderfully written. After reading the introduction, I was hooked: I
locked myself in my room, unplugged the telephone and didn't put down the book
until I was finished. That was ten minutes ago -- now I am online looking to
see if he has written any other books...I was disappointed to see that he
hasn't. Ben Hamper -- wherever you are -- I have joined the ranks as your loyal
fan. Even though you no longer work for GM, I hope you will find another story
out there and tell the world about it.
Invaluable Personal Account of an Americn Way of Life ByStacy
Heltonon July 2, 2013 Ben Hamper's 1991
memoir RIVETHEAD: TALES FROM THE ASSEMBLY LINE is both a well-written and a
vital piece of social commentary, a companion of sorts to Michael Moore's 1989
doc ROGER & ME. Ben Hamper was a fourth-generation GM "shoprat,"
aka assembly line worker at the Flint,
Michigan plant. Hamper, the
oldest of eight children in a Catholic household, sketches his childhood as a
promising student that inevitably burns out of high school, forcing him to
follow in the families' footsteps and enter the Blazer/Suburban assembly line,
where he eventually becomes a talented riveter, one of the more thankless and
difficult jobs at the factory. The book is a frank look at what life is like on
an assembly line and how the above-average wages become a ball and chain that
keep the employees from seeking other employment, and anyone who's seen ROGER
& ME know that there was never that much alternative work available in Flint. Ben is laid off
five separate times and hired back, so he is able to delve into the life of not
only an autoworker but an unemployed autoworker and the struggles with the
unemployment office. Eventually he meets Michael Moore, the then-editor of the Flint alternative
newspaper, where he becomes a star columnist known as the
"Rivethead," where he takes on the tedious life on the assembly line,
grimy, noisy, unrelenting work that is always overshadowed by the tick of the
clock. Colorful characters abound in the various departments and years that
Hamper works, and he happily chronicles them for his column. When Moore takes over MOTHER
JONES and puts Hamper on the cover he becomes a minor celebrity, appearing in
THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, on the TODAY SHOW and even vetted, in an unsuccessful
but humorous piece, by 60 MINUTES. There is bit of HS Thompson in the prose,
and Hamper isn't shy with sharing his alcohol intake and other vices, which
only adds to the realism. My dad was a welder for almost twenty years, and on
occasion I went to the plant, and the noise and grime Hamper describes is too
real. Hamper is the guy in ROGER & ME who describes having a nervous
breakdown, which resulted in a series of panic attacks. It's no surprise in the
end that Hamper's panic attacks become increasingly frequent, forcing a
dependence on pills, eventually checking himself in as a mental health
outpatient. A friend gave me this book, a fellow sociologist who read it for a
college course. I think it's an invaluable personal account of an American way
of life. The only issue is that the book just stops and doesn't really end; but
that's a minor quibble. Even though Hamper never published another book,
RIVETHEAD is an important artifact of a time and place.
Climate on Verge of Multi-Decadal Change A new study, by scientists from the University of Southampton
and National Oceanography Centre (NOC), implies that the global climate is on
the verge of broad-scale change that could last for a number of decades. University of Southampton, May
The change to the new set of
climatic conditions is associated with a cooling of the Atlantic, and is likely
to bring drier summers in Britain
and Ireland, accelerated
sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United
States, and drought in the developing countries of the Sahel region. Since this new climatic phase could be half
a degree cooler, it may well offer a brief reprise from the rise of global
temperatures, as well as resulting in fewer hurricanes hitting the United States.
The study, published in Nature, proves that ocean circulation is
the link between weather and decadal scale climatic change. It is based on
observational evidence of the link between ocean circulation and the decadal
variability of sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic
Lead author Dr Gerard McCarthy,
from the NOC, said: “Sea-surface temperatures in the Atlantic
vary between warm and cold over time-scales of many decades. These variations
have been shown to influence temperature, rainfall, drought and even the
frequency of hurricanes in many regions of the world. This decadal variability,
called the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), is a notable feature of
the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the
regions it influences.”
These climatic phases, referred to
as positive or negative AMO’s, are the result of the movement of heat
northwards by a system of ocean currents. This movement of heat changes the
temperature of the sea surface, which has a profound impact on climate on
timescales of 20-30 years. The strength of these currents is determined by the
same atmospheric conditions that control the position of the jet stream.
Negative AMO’s occur when the currents are weaker and so less heat is carried
northwards towards Europe from the tropics.
The strength of ocean currents has
been measured by a network of sensors, called the RAPID array, which have been
collecting data on the flow rate of the Atlantic meridonal overturning
circulation (AMOC) for a decade.
Dr David Smeed, from the NOC and
lead scientist of the RAPID project, adds: “The observations of AMOC from the
RAPID array, over the past ten years, show that it is declining. As a result,
we expect the AMO is moving to a negative phase, which will result in cooler surface
waters. This is consistent with observations of temperature in the North Atlantic.”
Since the RAPID array has only
been collecting data for last ten years, a longer data set was needed to prove
the link between ocean circulation and slow climate variations. Therefore this
study instead used 100 years of sea level data, maintained by the National
Oceanography Centre’s permanent service for mean sea level. Models of ocean
currents based on this data were used to predict how much heat would be
transported around the ocean, and the impact this would have on the sea surface
temperature in key locations.
Co-author Dr Ivan Haigh, lecturer in coastal oceanography
at the University
of Southampton, said: “By
reconstructing ocean circulation over the last 100 years from tide gauges that
measure sea level at the coast, we have been able to show, for the first time,
observational evidence of the link between ocean circulation and the AMO.”
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves
the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks
of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of
the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). It may
also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in
the blood. The uric acid crystallizes,
and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
Clinical diagnosis may be
confirmed by seeing the characteristic crystals in joint fluid. Treatment with nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms.
Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid are usually lowered via
lifestyle changes, and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinolor probenecid
provides long-term prevention.
Gout has become more common in
recent decades, affecting about 1 to 2% of the Western population at some point
in their lives. The increase is believed to be due to increasing risk factors
in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy, and
changes in diet. Gout was historically known as "the disease of
kings" or "rich man's disease."
Signs and Symptoms
Gout can present in a number of
ways, although the most usual is a recurrent attack of acute inflammatory
arthritis (a red, tender, hot, swollen joint). The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of
the big toe is affected most often, accounting for half of cases. Other joints, such as the heels, knees,
wrists, and fingers, may also be affected. Joint pain usually begins over 2–4 hours
and during the night. The reason for
onset at night is due to the lower body temperature then. Other symptoms may rarely occur along with the
joint pain, including fatigue and a high fever.
Long-standing elevated uric acid
levels (hyperuricemia) may result in other symptomatology, including hard,
painless deposits of uric acid crystals known as tophi. Extensive tophi may lead
to chronic arthritis due to bone erosion. Elevated levels of uric acid may also lead to
crystals precipitating in the kidneys, resulting in stone formation and
subsequent urate nephropathy.
Humans are able to learn abstract relations even before the first year of life by Hilary Hurd
--;May 26, 2015-- Two pennies can be considered the same -- both are pennies,
just as two elephants can be considered the same, as both are elephants.
Despite the vast difference between pennies and elephants, we easily notice the
common relation of sameness that holds for both pairs.
Analogical ability -- the ability
to see common relations between objects, events or ideas -- is a key skill that
underlies human intelligence and differentiates humans from other apes.
While there is considerable
evidence that preschoolers can learn abstract relations, it remains an open
question whether infants can as well. In a new NorthwesternUniversity
study, researchers found that infants are capable of learning the abstract
relations of same and different after only a few examples.
“This suggests that a skill key
to human intelligence is present very early in human development, and that
language skills are not necessary for learning abstract relations,” said lead
author Alissa Ferry, who conducted the research at Northwestern.
To trace the origins of
relational thinking in infants, the researchers tested whether 7-month-old
infants could understand the simplest and most basic abstract relation -- that
of sameness and difference between two things. Infants were shown pairs of
items that were either the same -- two Elmo dolls -- or different -- an Elmo
doll and a toy camel -- until their looking time declined.
In the test phase, the infants
looked longer at pairs showing the novel relation, even when the test pairs
were composed of new objects. That is, infants who had learned the same
relation looked longer at test pairs showing the different relation during
test, and vice versa. This suggests that the infants had encoded the abstract
relation and detected when the relation changed.
“We found that infants are
capable of learning these relations,” said Ferry, now doing post-doctoral
research at the InternationalSchool for Advanced Studies in Italy.
“Additionally, infants exhibit the same patterns of learning as older children
and adults -- relational learning benefits from seeing multiple examples of the
relation and is impeded when attention is drawn to the individual objects
composing the relation.”
Susan Hespos, a co-author of the
study, and associate professor of psychology at Northwestern’s Weinberg College
of Arts and Sciences said, “We show that infants can form abstract relations
before they learn the words that describe relations, meaning that relational
learning in humans does not require language and is a fundamental human skill
of its own.”
Dedre Gentner, a co-author of the
study and professor of psychology at Weinberg, said, “The infants in our study
were able to form an abstract same or different relation after seeing only 6-9
examples. It appears that relational learning is something that humans, even
very young humans, are much better at than other primates.”
For example, she noted that in a
recent study using baboons, those animals that succeeded in matching same and
different relations required over 15,000 trials.
Concepts: Investigating Analogical Processing in Infants” published online in
the journal Child Development.
– May 21, 2015 -- Scientists at McMasterUniversity have
discovered how to make adult sensory neurons from human patients simply by
having them roll up their sleeve and providing a blood sample.
Specifically, stem cell
scientists at McMaster can now directly convert adult human blood cells to both
central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in
the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain,
temperature and itch perception. This means that how a person’s nervous system
cells react and respond to stimuli, can be determined from his blood.
published online today and featured on the cover of the journal Cell
Reports, was led by Mick Bhatia, director of the McMaster Stem Cell and
Cancer Research Institute. He holds the Canada Research Chair in Human Stem
Cell Biology and is a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and
Biomedical Sciences of the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine. Also playing
a key role was Karun Singh, a co-author in the study and holder of the David
Braley Chair in Human Stem Cell Research.
and physicians have a limited understanding of the complex issue of pain and
how to treat it. The peripheral nervous system is made up of different types of
nerves – some are mechanical (feel pressure) and others detect temperature
(heat). In extreme conditions, pain or numbness is perceived by the brain using
signals sent by these peripheral nerves.
“The problem is that
unlike blood, a skin sample or even a tissue biopsy, you can’t take a piece of
a patient’s neural system. It runs like complex wiring throughout the body and
portions cannot be sampled for study,” said Bhatia.
“Now we can take
easy to obtain blood samples, and make the main cell types of neurological
systems – the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system – in a
dish that is specialized for each patient,” said Bhatia. “Nobody has ever done
this with adult blood. Ever.
“We can actually
take a patient’s blood sample, as routinely performed in a doctor’s office, and
with it we can produce one million sensory neurons, that make up the peripheral
nerves in short order with this new approach. We can also make central nervous
system cells, as the blood to neural conversion technology we developed creates
neural stem cells during the process of conversion.”
revolutionary, patented direct conversion technology has “broad and immediate
applications,” said Bhatia, adding that it allows researchers to start asking
questions about understanding disease and improving treatments such as: Why is
it that certain people feel pain versus numbness? Is this something genetic?
Can the neuropathy that diabetic patients experience be mimicked in a dish?
It also paves the
way for the discovery of new pain drugs that don’t just numb the perception of
pain. Bhatia said non-specific opioids used for decades are still being used
“If I was a
patient and I was feeling pain or experiencing neuropathy, the prized pain drug
for me would target the peripheral nervous system neurons, but do nothing to
the central nervous system, thus avoiding non-addictive drug side effects,”
“You don’t want
to feel sleepy or unaware, you just want your pain to go away. But, up until
now, no one’s had the ability and required technology to actually test
different drugs to find something that targets the peripheral nervous system
and not the central nervous system in a patient specific, or personalized
successfully tested their process using fresh blood, but also cryopreserved
(frozen) blood. Since blood samples are taken and frozen with many clinical
trials, this allows them “almost a bit of a time machine” to go back and
explore questions around pain or neuropathy to run tests on neurons created
from blood samples of patients taken in past clinical trials where responses
and outcomes have already been recorded”.
In the future,
the process may have prognostic potential, explained Bhatia, in that one might
be able to look at a patient with Type 2 Diabetes and predict whether they will
experience neuropathy by running tests in the lab using their own neural cells
derived from their blood sample.
“This bench to
bedside research is very exciting and will have a major impact on the
management of neurological diseases, particularly neuropathic pain,” said Akbar
Panju, medical director of the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Pain Research
and Care, a clinician and professor of medicine.
will help us understand the response of cells to different drugs and different
stimulation responses, and allow us to provide individualized or personalized
medical therapy for patients suffering with neuropathic pain.” This research
was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ontario Institute
of Regenerative Medicine, Marta and Owen Boris Foundation, J.P. Bickell
Foundation, and the Ontario Brain Institute and Brain Canada.
Computer Simulations Have Predicted a New Phase of Matter: Atomically Thin
pushes the boundaries of possible phases of materials further than ever before.
Two-dimensional materials themselves were considered impossible until the
discovery of graphene around ten years ago. However, they have been observed
only in the solid phase, because the thermal atomic motion required for molten
materials easily breaks the thin and fragile membrane. Therefore, the possible
existence of an atomically thin flat liquid was considered impossible.
from the NanoscienceCenter at the University of Jyväskylä,
led by Academy Research Fellow Pekka Koskinen, have conducted computer
simulations that predict a liquid phase in atomically thin golden islands that
patch small pores of graphene. According to the simulations, gold atoms flow
and change places in the plane, while the surrounding graphene template retains
the planarity of liquid membrane.
"Here the role
of graphene is similar to circular rings through which children blow soap
bubbles. The liquid state is possible when the edge of graphene pore stretches
the metallic membrane and keeps it steady," Koskinen says.
The liquid phase
was predicted by computer simulations using quantum-mechanical models and
nanostructures with tens or hundreds of gold atoms. The prediction was
published recently in the journal Nanoscale. Currently the
liquid state exists only in computers and is still waiting for experimental
simulations suggest that the flat liquid is volatile. In experiments the liquid
membrane might burst too early, like a soap bubble that bursts before one gets
a proper look at it. But again, even graphene was previously considered too
unstable to exist," Koskinen says.
The research was
funded by the Academy
of Finland and used the
computing infrastructure provided by CSC.
John Forbes Nash, Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was
an American mathematician whose works in game theory, differential geometry and
partial differential equations have provided insight into the factors that
govern chance and events inside complex systems in daily life.
His theories are used in economics,
computing, evolutionary biology, artificil intelligence, accounting, politics
and military theory. Serving as a Senior
Research Mathematician at PrincetonUniversity during the
latter part of his life, he shared the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic
Sciences with game theorists Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.In 2015, he was awarded the Abel Prize (along
with Louis Nirenberg) for his work on nonlinear partial differential equations.
In 1959, Nash began showing clear
signs of mental illness, and spent several years at psychiatric hospitals being
treated for paranoid schizophrenia. After 1970, his condition slowly improved,
allowing him to return to academic work by the mid-1980s. His struggles with his illness and his
recovery became the basis for Sylvia Nasar's biography A Beautiful Mind as well as a feature film [of the same name]
starring Russell Crowe.
On May 23, 2015, Nash and his
wife were killed in an automobile accident in New Jersey. Youth
Nash was born on June 13, 1928,
in Bluefield, West Virginia, United
States. His father, also named John Forbes
Nash, was an electrical engineer for the Appalachian Electric Power Company. His mother, born Margaret Virginia Martin and
known as Virginia,
had been a schoolteacher before she married. He was baptized in the Episcopal
Church directly opposite the Martin house on Tazewell Street. He had a younger sister, Martha, who was born
on November 16, 1930. Education
Nash attended kindergarten and
public school. His parents and grandparents provided books and encyclopedias
that he learned from. Nash's grandmother played piano at home, and Nash had
positive memories of listening to her when he visited. Nash's parents pursued
opportunities to supplement their son's education, and arranged for him to take
advanced mathematics courses at a local community college during his final year
of high school. Nash attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT; now CarnegieMellonUniversity)
with a full scholarship, the George Westinghouse Scholarship, and
initially majored in chemicak engineering. He switched to chemistry, and eventually to
mathematics. After graduating in 1948 with a B.S. degree and an M.S. degree,
both in mathematics, he accepted a scholarship to PrincetonUniversity,
where he pursued graduate studies in mathematics.
Nash's adviser and former CIT
professor Richard Duffin wrote a letter of recommendation for graduate school
consisting of a single sentence: "This man is a genius." Nash was accepted by HarvardUniversity, but the chairman of the
mathematics department of Princeton, Solomon Lefschetz, offered him the John S.
Kennedy fellowship, which was enough to convince Nash that Princeton
valued him more. Nash also considered
Princeton more favorably because of its location closer to his family in Bluefield. He went to Princeton,
where he worked on his equilibrium theory, later known as the Nash equilibrium. Major
Nash earned a Ph.D. degree in
1950 with a 28-page dissertation on non-cooperative games. The thesis, which was written under the
supervision of doctoral advisor Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and
properties of the Nash equilibrium. A crucial concept in non-cooperative games,
it won Nash the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1994.
Nash's major publications
relating to this concept are in the following papers:
Nash, JF (1950). “Equilibreum Points
in N-person Games”.Proceedings of the NationalAcademy
of Sciences 36 (36): 48–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.36.1.48 PMC
1063129lPMID 16588946.MR 0041701.
"The Bargaining Problem". Econometrica (18): 155–62. 1950. MR0035977.
Nash, J. (1951).
"Non-cooperative Games". Annals
of Mathematics54 (54): 286–95. doi:10.2307/1969529. JSTOR
Nash did groundbreaking work in
the area of real algebraic geometry:
"Real algebraic manifolds".
Annals of Mathematics (56):
405–21. 1952., MR 0050928. See "Proc. Internat. Congr. Math". AMS. 1952.
His work in mathematics includes
the Nash embedding theorem, which shows that every abstract Riemannian manifold
can be isometrically realized as a submanifold of Euclidean space. He also made significant contributions to the
theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations and to singularity
In 1951, Nash was hired by the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT) as a C. L. Moore instructor in the mathematics
faculty. About a year later, Nash began a relationship in Massachusetts with Eleanor Stier, a nurse he
met while she cared for him as a patient. They had a son, John David Stier, but
Nash left Stier when she told him of her pregnancy. The film based on Nash's life, A Beautiful Mind, was criticized during
the run-up to the 2002 Oscars for omitting this aspect of his life. He was said
to have abandoned her based on her social status, which he thought to have been
In 1954, while in his 20s, Nash
was arrested for indecent exposure in an entrapment of homosexuals in Santa Monica, California.
Although the charges were dropped, he
was stripped of his top-secret security clearance and fired from RAND
Corporation, where he had spent a few summers as a consultant.
Not long after breaking up with
Eleanor, he met Alicia Lopez-Harrison de Lardé (born January 1, 1933), a
naturalized U.S. citizen
from El Salvador.
De Lardé graduated from MIT, having majored in physics. They married in February 1957 at a Roman
Catholic ceremony, although Nash was an atheist.
In 1958, he was given a tenured
position at MIT, but Nash had his first symptoms of mental illness in early
1959. Alicia was pregnant with their first child. He resigned his position as a
member of the MIT mathematics faculty in the spring of 1959 and Alicia had him
admitted to the McLeanHospital for treatment of
schizophrenia that year. Their son, John Charles Martin Nash, was born soon
afterward. The boy was not named for a year because Alicia felt that her
husband should have a say in the name. Due to the stress of dealing with his
illness, Nash and de Lardé divorced in 1963. After his final hospital discharge
in 1970, Nash lived in de Lardé's house as a boarder. This stability seemed to
help him, and he learned how to consciously discard his paranoid delusions. He stopped taking psychiatric medication and
was allowed by Princeton to audit classes. He
continued to work on mathematics and eventually he was allowed to teach again.
In the 1990s, Alicia and Nash resumed their relationship, and remarried in
and later career
In 1978, Nash was awarded the John
von Neumann Theory Prize for his discovery of non-cooperative equilibria, now
called Nash equilibria. He won the Leroy P. Steele Prize in 1999.
In 1994, he received the Nobel
Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (along with John Harsanyi and Reinhard
Selten) as a result of his game theory work as a Princeton
graduate student. In the late 1980s, Nash had begun to use email to gradually
link with working mathematicians who realized that he was the John Nash
and that his new work had value. They formed part of the nucleus of a group
that contacted the Bank of Sweden's Nobel award committee and were able to
vouch for Nash's mental health ability to receive the award in recognition of
his early work.
As of 2011 Nash's recent work
involved ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, which show
that, as in his early career, he preferred to select his own path and problems.
Between 1945 and 1996, he published 23 scientific studies.
Nash has suggested hypotheses on
mental illness. He has compared not thinking in an acceptable manner, or being
"insane" and not fitting into a usual social function, to being
"on strike" from an economic point of view. He has advanced views in evolutionary
psychology about the value of human diversity and the potential benefits of
apparently nonstandard behaviors or roles.
Nash has developed work on the
role of money in society. Within the framing theorem that people can be so
controlled and motivated by money that they may not be able to reason
rationally about it, he has criticized interest groups that promote
quasi-doctrines based on Keynesian economics that permit manipulative
short-term inflation and debt tactics that ultimately undermine currencies. He
has suggested a global "industrial consumption price index" system
that would support the development of more "ideal money" that people
could trust rather than more unstable "bad money". He notes that some
of his thinking parallels economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek’s
thinking regarding money and a nontypical viewpoint of the function of the
Nash received an honorary degree,
Doctor of Science and Technology, from CarnegieMellonUniversity
in 1999, an honorary degree in economics from the University
of Naples Federico II on March 19,
2003, an honorary doctorate in economics from the University of Antwerp
in April 2007, and was keynote speaker at a conference on game theory. He has
also been a prolific guest speaker at a number of world-class events, such as
the Warwick Economics Summit in 2005 held at the University of Warwick.
In 2012 he was elected as a fellow of
the American Mathematical Society. On
May 19, 2015, he and Louis Nirenberg were presented with the 2015 Abel Prize by
King Harald V of Norway at a
ceremony in Oslo.
On May 23, 2015, Nash and his
wife Alicia were killed in an automobile accident on the New Jersey Turnpike
near MonroeTownship. The driver of the taxi they were riding in
lost control as he tried to overtake another vehicle and struck a guard rail;
the couple were thrown out of the car. A
police spokesman declined to comment on media reports that they were not
wearing seat belts.
Russell Crowe, who played Nash in
the film version of A Beautiful Mind, took to Twitter to pay tribute. Representation
At Princeton, campus legend Nash
became known as "The Phantom of Fine Hall" (Princeton's
mathematics center), a shadowy figure who would scribble arcane equations on
blackboards in the middle of the night. He is referred to in a novel set at Princeton, The Mind-Body Problem, 1998, by Rebecca
Sylvia Nasar’s biography of Nash,
A Beautiful Mind, was published in
1998.A film by the same name was
released in 2001, directed by Ron Howard with Russell Crowe playing Nash.
Judge Andrew Napolitano was on Fox News yesterday talking
about the renewal of the Patriot Act and its reliance on “general warrants,”
which are used extensively with telephone communications.Here is a transcript of his comments
JUDGE ANDREW NAPOLITANO: “I do say that Senator Paul is the
only person who announced for president who is faithful to the constitution. I
think he demonstrated that just moments to go. yesterday in 11 hours of
speaking on the floor of the Senate. Which you just so nicely summarized for
Fourth Amendment absolutely prohibits general warrants. A general
warrant is a piece of paper in which a court says admit the bearer to listen to
whatever he wants, to go wherever he wants to go and to seize whatever he
“Because the Fourth Amendment says search
warrants can only come about when the government has probable cause to believe that someone is committing a
crime and then the warrant, Senator Paul is correct, must specifically
describe the person or place to be seized or the thing to be searched. And
these general warrants that the secret FISA court gives out do not do that.
“Instead they say you
may seize all the phone calls in an area code, in a zip code, or from a
particular telecom like Verizon. That is more information than the NSA can
possibly go through. And it is a profound violation of the Fourth Amendment
and, therefore, the civil liberties of everyone whose records have been
NAPOLITANO: “When General Keith Alexander who ran the NSA for four years was
asked how many plots your spying on all people, all the time, has stopped and
asked under oath, he said, 53. The next day he amended that to 3. When asked to
asked to explain his reduction from 53 to 3 or describe the 3, he declined to
“The problem with
this, Andrea, is not only that it violates our freedom by invading the privacy.
It doesn't work. It's far too much information for the NSA to sift through. The
framers were right when they said if you present some evidence to a court first
you already have an idea who the bad guy is. So if they follow the
constitution, they'll find more bad guys and find them sooner than if they
gather all information from everybody all the time.”
Stanley Donald Stookey (May 23, 1915 – November 4, 2014) was an American
had 60 patents in his name related to glass and ceramics, some
solely his while others are jointly with others. His discoveries and inventions
have affected considerably the development of ceramics, eyeglasses, sunglasses,
cookware, defense systems, and electronics.
He was a research director at Corning
Glass Works for 47 years doing R & D in glass and ceramic development. His
inventions include Fotoform, CorningWare, Cercor, Pyrocram and Photochromic
Ophthalmic glass eyewear.
Stookey went to CoeCollege
from 1934 to 1936 where he graduated with his first degree, a liberal arts
degree in chemistry and mathematics. Stookey’s grandfather (Stephen Stookey)
was previously a professor of botany and geology at that same college. After graduation from Coe College Stookey then
went to LafayetteCollege in Easton,
Pennsylvania in 1937. He received a $1000 fellowship to cover living
expenses and as a teaching laboratory assistant in the chemistry lab. In 1938 he earned his Master of Science degree
in chemistry from LafayetteCollege. Stookey then went to Massachusetts Institute
of Technology in Cambridge
where he received a doctorate in chemistry in 1940.He received an honorary degree from AlfredUniversity
in 1984. The same year he married his
Stookey took his career job at Corning
Glass Works in 1940. He carried out research on glass and ceramics, which led
to several inventions. Stookey studied and experimented with opal glass and glass
One of Stookey's earliest
innovations was FotoForm glass. The scientific community recognized its value
around 1948. FotoForm glass is used in computer manufacturing and
communications technology. A serendipitous invention made by Stookey in 1953
was when he took a piece of FotoForm glass and mistakenly heated it to
900 °C when he meant to heat it to 600 °C. When an oven thermometer
was stuck on the higher temperature Stookey had accidentally created the first
glass-ceramic, Fotoceram. It was later
known also as Pyroceram. This was the first glass-ceramic and eventually led to
the development of CorningWare in 1957. CorningWare went to the consumer
marketplace the next year in 1958 for cookware by Corning Glass Works and
became just one of Stookey's multi-million dollar inventions. It influenced the
development of VisionWare, which is transparent cookware. VisionWare was patented by Corning Glass Works
Pyroceramic glass has the necessary properties to be used by the
military for the nose cones of supersonic radar domes in guided missiles
applied in defense. It has the special
properties of extreme hardness, super strength, resistance to high heatand
transparency to radar waves. It is the basis for Gorilla Glass, used in
iPhones and other LCD screens.
Stookey also developed photochromic
glass.Photochromic glass is a glass
that is used to make ophthalmic lenses that darken in bright light. These
lenses were first available to consumers in the 1960s as sunglasses made by Corning
Glass Works. It was a joint discovery
and development of Stookey with William Armistead. Stookey also invented photosensitive
glasses using gold in which permanent colored photographs can be produced.
Stookey retired from Corning
Glass Works in 1987 after a career of 47 years.He died at the age of 99 in 2014.
Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that
postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter. The
concept has been popularized by the television series Nova. In this presentation,
absolute hot is assumed to be the high end of a temperature scale starting at absolute
zero, which is the temperature at which entropy is minimal and classical
thermal energy is zero.
Contemporary models of physical
cosmology postulate that the highest possible temperature is the Planck
temperature, which has the value 7032141678500000000♠1.416785(71)×1032 kelvin. Above ~1032 K, particle energies become so large that gravitational
forces between them would become as strong as other fundamental forces
according to current theories. There is no existing scientific theory for the
behavior of matter at these energies. A quantum theory of gravity would be
required. The models of the origin of
the universe based on the Big Bang theory assume that the universe has passed
through this temperature about 10−42 seconds after the Big Bang as a result of enormous entropy expansion.
Another theory of absolute hot is
based on the Hagedorn temperature, where the thermal energies of the particles
exceed the mass-energy of a hadron particle-antiparticle pair. Instead of temperature
rising, at the Hagedorn temperature more and heavier particles are produced by pair
production, thus preventing effective further heating, given that only hadrons
are produced. However, further heating is possible (with pressure) if the
matter undergoes a phase change into a quark-gluon plasma. For hadrons, the Hagedorn temperature is 2 ×
1012 K, which has been reached and exceeded in
LHC and RHIC experiments. However, in string theory, a separate Hagedorn
temperature can be defined, where strings similarly provide the extra degrees
of freedom. However, it is so high (1030 K) that no current or foreseeable experiment can
Quantum physics formally assumes
infinitely positive or negative temperatures in descriptions of spin system
undergoing population inversion from the ground state to a higher energy state
by excitation with electromagnetic radiation. The temperature function in these
systems exhibits a singularity, meaning the temperature tends to positive
infinity, before discontinuously switching to negative infinity. However, this applies only to specific degrees
of freedom in the system, while others would have normal temperature
dependency. If equipartitioning were possible, such formalisms ignore the fact
that the spin system would be destroyed by the decomposition of ordinary matter
before infinite temperature could be reached uniformly in the sample.[
snakes in the grass actually lived in the forest, according to the most
detailed look yet at the iconic reptiles.
analysis by YaleUniversity paleontologists reveals new
insights into the origin and early history of snakes. For one thing, they kept
late hours; for another, they also kept their hind legs.
the first comprehensive reconstruction of what the ancestral snake was like,”
said Allison Hsiang, lead author the study published online May 19 in the
journal BMC Evolutionary Biology. Hsiang is a postdoctoral researcher in Yale’s
Department of Geology and Geophysics.
“We infer that
the most recent common ancestor of all snakes was a nocturnal, stealth-hunting
predator targeting relatively large prey, and most likely would have lived in
forested ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere,” Hsiang said.
always captured the imagination of humans. Their long and sinuous body,
fearsome reputation, and great diversity — with more than 3,400 living species
— make them one of the most recognizable groups of living vertebrate animals.
Yet little has been known about how, where, and when modern snakes emerged.
The Yale team
analyzed snake genomes, modern snake anatomy, and new information from the
fossil record to find answers. In doing so, the researchers generated a family
tree for both living and extinct snakes, illuminating major evolutionary
patterns that have played out across snake evolutionary history.
suggest that the most recent common ancestor of all living snakes would have
already lost its forelimbs, but would still have had tiny hind limbs, with
complete ankles and toes. It would have first evolved on land, instead of in
the sea,” said co-author Daniel Field, a Yale Ph.D. candidate. “Both of those
insights resolve longstanding debates on the origin of snakes.”
said ancestral snakes were non-constricting, wide-ranging foragers that seized
their prey with needle-like hooked teeth and swallowed them whole. They
originated about 128.5 million years ago, during the middle Early Cretaceous
brains, including those of humans, are hard-wired to attend to serpents, and
with good reason,” said Jacques Gauthier, senior author of the study, a Yale
professor of geology and geophysics, and curator of fossil vertebrates at the
Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. “Our natural and adaptive attention to
snakes makes the question of their evolutionary origin especially intriguing.”
Support for the
research came from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian
Institution, and the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
authors of the study are Timothy Webster, Adam Behlke, Matthew Davis, and
Rachel Racicot, all of Yale.
Fountain is a fountain and statue located in WashingtonD.C., donated to the city in 1882 by Henry D.
Cogswell, a dentist from San Francisco,
California, who was a crusader in
the temperance movement.This fountain
was one of a series of temperance fountains he designed and commissioned in a
belief that easy access to cool drinking water would keep people from consuming
The hideous Temperance Fountain and Statue
The fountain has four stone columns
supporting a canopy on whose sides the words "Faith," "Hope,"
"Charity," and "Temperance" are chiseled. Atop this canopy
is a life-sized heron, and the centerpiece is a pair of entwined heraldic scaly
dolphins. Originally, visitors were supposed to freely drink ice water flowing
from the dolphins' snouts with a brass cup attached to the fountain and the
overflow was collected by a trough for horses, but the city tired of having to
replenish the ice in a reservoir underneath the base and disconnected the
(Base of fish:)
DR. HENRY D. COGSWELL
OF SAN FRANCISCO CAL
(Top of temple:)
In 1987, it was relocated about
100 feet north [backing it away from Seventh and Pennsylvania Avenue to
approximately Seventh and Indiana Avenue] during the renewal by the Pennsylvania
Avenue Development Corporation, since the statue was regarded as undesirable
from the start. The PADC created IndianaPlaza, and the Temperance Fountain
swapped locations with the monument to the Grand Army of the Republic, which
was considered historically more significant.
Today the fountain sits at the
corner of Seventh Street
and Indiana Avenue, NW,
across from [701 Pennsylvania
Avenue, a METRO subway entrance and] the National
Archives and Navy Memorial, where thousands of tourists and workers walk past daily without
noticing it. The Temperance
Fountain has been called "the city's ugliest statue" [in
writing by the Washington Post in 2003]. The late NBC correspondent Bryson
Rash, writing in Footnote Washington, a 1981 book of capital lore,
reported that "these unusual and awkward structures spurred the movement
across the country for city fine arts commissions to screen such gifts"
prior to funding. In April 1945, Sen. Sheridan
Downey of California introduced a Senate resolution to remove the fountain,
but, preoccupied with World War II, Congress ignored the resolution and it died
Catallactics is a theory of the way the free market
system reaches exchange ratios and prices. It aims to analyse all actions based
on monetary calculation and trace the formation of prices back to the point
where an agent makes his or her choices. It explains prices as they are, rather
than as they "should" be. The laws of catallactics are not valyue
judtgments, but aim to be exact, objective and of universal validity. It was
first used extensively by the AustrianSchool economist Ludwig
Cattallactics is a praxeological
theory, the term catallaxy being used by Friedrich Hayek to describe "the
order brought about by the mutual adjustment of many individual economies in a
market." Hayek was dissatisfied
with the usage of the word "economy" because its Greek root, which
translates as "household management", implies that economic agents in
a market economy possess shared goals. He derived the word
"Catallaxy" (Hayek's suggested Greek construction would be rendered
καταλλαξία) from the Greek verb katallasso (καταλλάσσω) which meant not
only "to exchange" but also "to admit in the community" and
"to change from enemy into friend."
According to Mises (Human Action, page 3) and Hayek it was Richard
Whately who coined the term "catallactics". Whately's Introductory
Lectures on Political Economy (1831) reads:
“It is with a view to put you
on your guard against prejudices thus created, (and you will meet probably with
many instances of persons influenced by them,) that I have stated my objections
to the name of Political-Economy. It is now, I conceive, too late to think of
changing it. A. Smith, indeed, has designated his work a treatise on the
"Wealth of Nations;" but this supplies a name only for the
subject-matter, not for the science itself. The name I should have preferred as
the most descriptive, and on the whole least objectionable, is that of
CATALLACTICS, or the "Science of Exchanges."
Also, in a footnote to these
sentences, he continues:
“It is perhaps hardly
necessary to observe, that I do not pretend to have classical authority for
this use of the word Catallactics; nor do I deem it necessary to make any
apology for using it without such authority. It would be thought, I conceive,
an absurd pedantry to find fault with such words as "thermometer,"
"telescope," "pneumatics," "hydraulics,"
"geology," &c. on the ground that classical Greek writers have
not employed them, or have taken them in a different sense. In the present
instance, however, I am not sure that, if Aristotle had had occasion to express
my meaning, he would not have used the very same word. In fact I may say he has
used another part of the same verb in the sense of "exchanging;" (for
the Verbals in are, to all practical purposes, to be regarded as parts of the
verbs they are formed from) in the third book of the Nicom. Ethics he speaks of
men who hold their lives so cheap, that they risked them in exchange for the
most trifling gain . The employment of this and kindred words in the sense of
"reconcilement," is evidently secondary, reconciliation being
commonly effected by a compensation; something accepted as an equivalent for
loss or injury.”
It has also been cited that
Whately first coined the term in commentary during his Oxford lectures.
Mark Goulston (born February 21, 1948) is a prominent
psychiatrist and consultant to major organizations. His book, Just Listen, ranked #1 in six
Amazon/Kindle categories, has been translated into 14 languages, reached #1 in Munich and Shanghai,
and became the basis of a 2010 PBS special. The Consumers Research Council
three times named him one of America's
Top Psychiatrists, including in 2011. For over 20 years, he has been Clinical
Assistant Professor of Medicine at UCLA's Neuropsychiatric Institute. Goulston
has appeared on Oprah, The Today Show,
The Phil Donohue Show, CNN, and hosted a PBS pledge drive special. His
column Solve Anything with Dr. Mark is nationally syndicated by Tribune
Media Services. He blogs for the Huffington Post, Psychology Today, Fast
Company, and Business Insider, and he contributes to the Harvard Business Review. He frequently gives keynote speeches at
women's conferences. Dr. Goulston lives
in Los Angeles
with his wife and three children.
Goulston started a private practice.
It specialized in suicide, death, and dying, including making house calls, and
working with families and couples. After doing psychiatric house calls to dying
patients and their family members, he was sought out to work with the surviving
family and their businesses.
That expanded to his being a
consultant, speaker, trainer and coach to such organizations as IBM, Goldman
Sachs, Merrill Lynch, Xerox, Deutsche Bank, Hyatt, Accenture, Astra Zeneca,
British Airways, Sodexo, ESPN, Kodak, Federal Express, YPO, YPOWPO India,
Association for Corporate Growth, FBI, Los Angeles District Attorney, White
& Case, Seyfarth Shaw, UCLA Anderson School of Management, USC, and
He has been interviewed, appeared
in and/or and written for hundreds of major media, including: the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Forbes,
Fortune, Los Angeles
Times, CNN, MSNBC, and HLN. He also
co-hosts the Zo Williams Morning Radio Show.
In addition to the aforementioned
Just Listen, Goulston's five books include Get Out of Your Own Way:
Overcoming Self-Defeating Behavior, Get Out of Your Own Way at Work…and Help Others Do the
Same, The 6 Secrets of a Lasting Relationship, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for Dummies.His sixth book, Real Influence: Persuade Without Pushing and Gain Without Giving In,
co-authored with Dr. John Ullment to be published in 2013 [available now in
2015], has been selected as the lead book for the American Management
Association and has also been selected as one of the 30 Best Business Books for
2013 by Soundview Executive Summaries.
Goulston sits on the Board of
Advisors at Health Corps (Dr. Mehmet Oz’s foundation) and American Women
Veterans, and he is a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association. He is also the Co-Founder, Co-Curator and
Co-Guardian of Heartfelt Leadership, an effort to bring more humanity and
ultimately more profit to the workplace.
Dr. Goulston is also Co-Developer
of The Exam Performance Program (R), an eLearning course which teaches students
how to be calm, confident and focused so they can perform better and score
better on academic exams and standardized tests. The course has been developed
to (I) improve student cognitive performance and test scores on academic exams
and standardized tests, (II) improve student mindset, self-confidence,
self-efficacy, motivation, engagement, retention and academic trajectory, (III)
eliminate/prevent test-anxiety and "stereotype-threat", and (IV) motivate
STEM achievement, especially in low-income/minority/female/foster-care student
groups. The Exam Performance company website and information about the
Development Team is at
The Carnival of Venice is a folk tune popularly associated with the words "My hat, it has three
corners" (or in German, Mein Hut, der hat drei Ecken). A series of theme and variations has been
written for solo trumpet, as "show off" pieces that contain virtuoso
displays of double and triple tonguing, and fast tempos.
Many variations on the theme have
been written, most notably those by Jean-Baptiste Arban, Del Staigers, Herbert
L. Clarke for the cornet, trumpet, and euphonium, Francisco Tarrege and Johann
Kaspar Mertz for classical guitar, Ignace Gibsone for piano, and –Giovanni Bottesini
for double bass. Chopin’s "Souvenir
de Paganini", dedicated to the composer and violin virtuoso Niccolo
Paganini, is another variation on this theme. The popular novelty song, “(How
Much Is) That Doggie in the Window?”, written and recorded in 1952, is based on
the tune. A more recent piece making use of the theme, by Allen Vizzutti,
called "The Carnival of Venus," is regarded as one of the most
difficult trumpet pieces ever written due to range and technical demands.
The piece has also been arranged
for tuba, notably played by John Fletcher and available on the CD The Best
of Fletch. Also Roger Bobo on Tuba Libera (cd). Another tubist whose
performance of the piece is noteworthy is Oystein Baadsvik, a Norwegian tubist.