Confectioners in early 19th century
Another milestone in the development of the modern marshmallow was the extrusion process by the American Alex Doumak in 1954. Marshmallow mixture is pumped through extrusion heads with numerous ports aligned next to each other which form long continuous "ropes" of marshmallow. This invention allowed marshmallows to be manufactured in a fully automated way and gives us the familiar cylindrical shape of today's marshmallow. In today’s modern marshmallow processing plants the following process may be used to make marshmallows in large quantities. In large industrial kettles, water, sugar, and corn syrup are heated to a precise temperature and cooked for a precise time. This mixture is then pumped to another kettle to cool. Rehydrated gelatin is added and blended in once the mixture has cooled enough to not “kill” the gelatin. To give the marshmallow its fluffiness it is pumped through a blender while air is pumped into it. At this point it still needs to be cooled down further, so it will hold its shape when extruded, it is pumped through a heat exchanger prior to being pumped through the extrusion heads and onto a wide conveyor belt. The conveyor belt is coated in corn starch and more corn starch is dusted onto the top of the marshmallow extrusion as it passes down the conveyor. A large knife the width of the conveyor is located at the end of this conveyor table that will then chop the extrusion into the size marshmallow desired. The pieces will then be tumbled in corn starch in a large drum in order for the marshmallow to form its familiar skin and allow pieces that didn’t get cut all the way to break apart.
Marshmallows, like most sweets, are sweetened with sucrose. They are currently prepared by the aeration of mixtures of sucrose and proteins to a final density of about 0.5 g/ml. The proteins, and gelatin or egg albumin, prevent the collapse of the air-filled cells.
A popular camping or backyard tradition in the
S'mores are made by placing a toasted marshmallow on a slab of chocolate which is placed between two graham crackers. These can then be squeezed together to cause the chocolate to start to melt.