In 2008, graphene produced by exfoliation was one of the most expensive materials on Earth, with a sample the area of a cross section of a human hair costing more than $1,000 as of April 2008 (about $100,000,000/cm2). Since then, exfoliation procedures have been scaled up, and now companies sell graphene in large quantities. The price of epitaxial graphene on Silicon carbide is dominated by the substrate price, which was approximately $100/cm2 as of 2009. Hong and his team in
In 2013, the European Union made a €1 billion grant to be used for research into potential graphene applications. In 2013 the Graphene Flagship consortium formed, including Chalmers University of Technology and seven other European universities and research centers, along with Nokia.
Potential Applications Under Study
- Energy, including generation and storage
- Sensors, including pressure sensors, NEMS, molecular adsorbtion, piezoelectric effect, body motion and magnetic
- Environmental, including contaminant removal and water filtration
- Other, such as plasmonics and metamaterials, lubricant, radio wave absorption, redox, nanoantennas, sound transducers, waterproof coating, coolant additive, reference material, thermal management, structural material, catalyst, and aviation