A 2010 study at the University of Texas found that those who identified as "dog people" tended to be more social and outgoing, whereas "cat people" tended to be more neurotic and "open," meaning creative, philosophical, or nontraditional. In a 2014 study at Carroll University, Wisconsin, people who said they were dog lovers were found to be more energetic and outgoing, and tended to follow rules closely, while cat lovers were more introverted, open-minded and sensitive. Cat people also tended to be non-conformists as well as scoring higher on intelligence tests than dog lovers.
Women who have cats have long been associated with the concept of spinsterhood. In more recent decades, the concept of a cat lady has been associated with "romance-challenged (often career-oriented) women".
A cat lady may also be an animal hoarder who keeps large numbers of cats without having the ability to properly house or care for them. They may be ignorant about their situation.
Some writers, celebrities, and artists have challenged the gender based "Crazy Cat Lady" stereotype, and embraced the term to mean an animal lover or rescuer who cares for one or multiple cats, and who is psychologically healthy.